Saturday, June 9, 2012

Rangkuman Kelas2 #MoMAclass Modern Art modul 1-10

1. Post Impressionism
Perupa utama: Van Gogh
Karya: Starry Night
Perupa lain: Cézanne, Gauguin, Seurat
Perioda: 1880-90an
Istilah & arti: Setelah Impresionisme

2. Symbolism

Perupa utama: Klimt
Karya: Hope II
Perupa lain: Ensor, Munch, Redon
Perioda: 1870-1920an
Istilah & arti: Symbolism was a movement that turned its back on the prevailing modes of Academicism and Naturalism. It espoused ideas of mysticism and the spiritual and celebrated a retreat from modern, industrialized life. At is core was the notion of fostering a subjective sensibility, based on an interior state rather than an outward or objective relation to the material world. In this, its conceptual roots lie closer to that of the earlier 19th-century movement Romanticism. 

3. Fauvism

Perupa utama: Matisse
Karya: The Red Studio
Perupa Lain: Derain, de Vlaminck, Rouault & Dufy
Perioda: c. 1898 - 1906
Istilah & arti: Critic Louis Vauxcelles called Matisse and his cohorts "Fauves," the French word for “wild beasts,” because of their violent use of color and brushwork.

4. Expressionism
Perupa utama: Kandinsky (Der Blaue Reiter)
Karya: Picture with an Archer

Perupa lain: Kirchner (Die Brucke), Schiele
Perioda: 1905-1914
Istilah & arti:

The German Expressionist movement was made up of two groups of artists, Der Blaue Reiter (the Blue Rider) and Die Brücke (the Bridge) . Both groups were committed to the expression of extreme internal feelings, which led them to experiment with bold, non naturalistic colors, distorted forms, and dramatic compositions. 
However, their methods of artistic expression were very different. The Blaue Reiter was formed in Munich in 1911 by Russian artist Kandinsky, Czech artist Kubin, and German artists Munter and Marc. The group's name—is derived from Kandinsky and Marc's shared love of the color blue, which they considered to be the most spiritual of the spectrum; Marc's passion for animals, especially horses; and the fact that Kandinsky's earlier work often took up the theme of horses or men on horseback. The Blaue Reiter artists, who were generally older and more intellectual in approach than the Brücke’s young radicals, were concerned with a more mystical approach to art making. 
The Brücke, founded in Dresden in 1905 by four young architecture students (Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, and Fritz Bleyl), is associated with an interest in the distortion of reality to express anguish about modern urban society. These artists sought out violent clashes of color and dynamic means of expression. 

5. Cubism & Futurism
Perupa utama: Picasso (Cubism) & Boccioni (Futurism)
Karya: Les Desmoiselles d'Avignon (Picasso) & Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (Boccioni)
Perupa lain: Braques 
Perioda: 1907-1914
Istilah & arti: In 1908, the painter Henri Matisse labeled Braque's work "les petites cubes," leading the critic Louis Vauxcelles to coin the term Cubism.

6. School of Paris

Perupa utama: Modigliani
Karya: Reclining Nude
Perupa lain: Chagall, Lipchitz, Soutine & Brancusi 
Perioda: awal abad ke-20
Istilah & arti: Paris sebagai pusat seni rupa, menjadi tempat bertemu dan berkaryanya para perupa modern dari pelbagai penjuru Eropa

7. Utopian Visions

Perupa utama: Malevich & Mondrian
Karya: White on White (Malevich) & Trafalgar Square (Mondrian)
Perupa lain: Rodchenko
Perioda: dekade ke-2 abad ke-20 (±1910-1920)
Istilah & arti:  Suprematism & Constructivism di Russia, De Stijl di Belanda, & Neo-Plasticism, dimulai di Belanda & dikembangkan di Perancis 

8. Bauhaus
Perupa utama: Moholy Nagy
Karya: Construction in Enamel 3
Perupa lain: Gropius, Klee, Kandinsky
Perioda: 1913-33
Istilah & arti: Bauhaus berarti "The Building House". 
The Bauhaus (meaning literally The Building House or Big Building Project) was a reformed arts school in Germany, modeled upon the Deutscher Werkbund (the German Work Federation—a German association of artists, architects, designers, and industrialists founded in 1907 in Munich), the school served as a laboratory for experimentation and collaboration between artists, architects, and designers and attempted to balance economic, artistic, and moral aims. Based on an anti-academic stance, the Bauhaus asserted a lack of hierarchy between various arts and architecture and loosely borrowed from the medieval guild system of students as apprentices learning from masters (teachers).

9. Dada

Perupa utama: Duchamp
Karya: Bicycle Wheel
Perupa lain: Arp, Ernst, Ray
Perioda: 1914 - 1924
Istilah & arti:
Dada was an international art and literary movement in major cultural centers, including New York, Zürich, Paris, Berlin, Cologne, and Hannover, between 1914 and 1924 
In 1916, members of the Zürich group randomly found the word "dada" in a French-German dictionary, which means "hobby horse" in French but can also be a child's first word or "there there" or "yes yes" in a Slavic language.

They were united not by a common style but by a rejection of conventions in art and thought, seeking through their unorthodox techniques, performances and provocations to shock society into self-awareness. The name Dada itself was typical of the movement’s anti-rationalism.

10. Surrealism    
Perupa utama: Dali
Karya: Persistence of Memory
Perupa lain: Magritte, Miro, Giacometti, Oppeheim
Perioda: 1924 - 1945
Istilah & arti:

Breton defined Surrealism as:
Pure psychic automatism, by which one intends to express verbally, in writing, or by any other method, the real functioning of the mind. Dictation by thought, in the absence of any control exercised by reason, and beyond any esthetic or moral preoccupation. ... Surrealism is based on the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of association heretofore neglected, in the omnipotence of dreams, in the undirected play of thought. ... I believe in the future resolution of the states of dream and reality, in appearance so contradictory, in a sort of absolute reality, or surreality.

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